Dr. Denslow’s research involves developing and using molecular biomarkers to evaluate changes in gene expression depending on stress or exposure to contaminants. For environmental species, molecular approaches, including microarray analysis and proteomics, were developed for several non-model species, including fish, gastropods, and coral. Fish swim in waters that are contaminated by superfund chemicals and emerging contaminants of concern and, thus, provide a direct measure of effects of the contaminants in vertebrates. Many of the chemicals behave as endocrine disruptors and, in particular, as estrogen mimics. To better study the direct effects of these contaminants on reproduction, three largemouth bass estrogen receptors (alpha and two beta-like subtypes) were isolated, sequenced, and integrated into expression assays. The receptors appear to bind and are activated differentially by organochlorine pesticides. In addition, the tissue expression patterns are different for the three receptors.